The Day the Waves went on Strike
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The source of a local tsunami is close to the coast and may arrive in less than one hour. The danger is greatest for local tsunamis because warning time is limited. A distant tsunami is generated far away from a coast, so there is more time to issue and respond to warnings.
Most ocean waves are generated by wind. Tsunamis are not the same as wind waves. First of all, they have different sources. In addition, tsunamis move through the entire water column, from the ocean surface to the ocean floor, while wind waves only affect the ocean surface.
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Waves can also be described based on their wavelength horizontal distance between wave crests , period time between wave crests , and speed. These characteristics highlight additional differences between tsunamis and wind waves. Wavelengths are measured in miles for tsunamis and in feet for wind waves. Periods are measured in minutes for tsunamis and in seconds for wind waves.
Tsunamis are also faster than wind waves, and although they may be smaller in height in the deep ocean, tsunamis can grow to much greater heights and cause much more destruction than wind waves at the coast. Tsunami Wind Wave Source Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity, certain types of weather, near earth objects Winds that blow across the surface of the ocean Location of energy Entire water column, from the ocean surface to the ocean floor Ocean surface Wavelength miles feet Wave Period 5 minutes — 2 hours seconds Wave Speed miles per hour in deep water miles per hour near shore miles per hour.
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The main mission of the warning centers is to help protect life and property from tsunamis. To do this, they monitor observational networks, analyze earthquakes, evaluate water-level information, issue tsunami messages, conduct public outreach, and coordinate with the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program and government, academic, and international organizations to continually improve their operations.
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The Tsunami Warning Centers depend on an observation system that includes seismic and water-level networks from around the world to help them determine when and where to issue tsunami messages. The warning centers analyze this information to determine if the earthquake could have generated a tsunami and if a tsunami message is necessary. Water-Level Networks —If an earthquake meets certain criteria, the warning centers turn to water-level information, looking for changes in water-level height that could indicate the existence and size of a tsunami.
The primary sources of information about water-level change are a network of Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami DART systems and an extensive array of coastal water-level stations. Each system consists of a bottom pressure recorder BPR anchored on the ocean floor and a separately moored companion surface buoy.
When a tsunami passes over a BPR, the instrument detects and records the changes in the overlying water pressure. An acoustic link transmits information from the BPR to the surface buoy, which then relays it via satellite to the warning centers where the information is incorporated into tsunami forecast models. See how a DART system works video. Coastal water-level stations collect important information about the height of the ocean at specific coastal locations. Their primary purpose is to monitor tides for navigation purposes, thus they are located on the coast in contrast to the DART systems, which are in deep water , generally on piers in harbors.
Information from these stations is relayed via satellite to the warning centers where it is used to confirm tsunami arrival time and height and is incorporated into tsunami forecast models. Coastal water-level stations are owned and operated by a number of national and international organizations. In the United States, most of the tsunami-capable coastal water-level stations i. In most cases, the first sign of a potential tsunami is an earthquake.
Seismic waves travel about times faster than tsunamis, so information about an earthquake is available before information about any tsunami it may have generated. Three key pieces of information about an earthquake help the Tsunami Warning Centers determine if it was capable of generating a tsunami: location, depth, and magnitude. The warning centers use this preliminary seismic information to decide if they should issue a tsunami message and at what alert level s. Once a message is issued, the warning centers conduct additional seismic analysis and run tsunami forecast models using information from the seismic and water-level networks as it becomes available.
These numerical models use the real-time information and pre-established scenarios to simulate tsunami movement across the ocean and estimate coastal impacts, including wave height and arrival times, the location and extent of coastal flooding, and event duration. The resulting forecasts, combined with historic tsunami information and additional seismic analysis, help the warning centers decide if they should issue an updated or cancellation message.
It is more difficult to forecast nonseismic tsunamis like landslide and volcanic tsunamis and meteotsunamis , which can arrive with little to no warning. Even if a nonseismic tsunami is detected by a DART system or coastal water-level station, there may not be time to develop a detailed forecast.
In the case of meteotsunamis, NWS Weather Forecast Offices, with decision support from the warning centers, can notify the public of the potential coastal threat given the presence of or potential for certain weather conditions along with observed water-level measurements. Tsunami messages are issued by the Tsunami Warning Centers to notify emergency managers and other local officials, the public, and other partners about the potential for a tsunami following a possible tsunami-generating event.
There are four levels of tsunami alerts: warning, advisory, watch, and information statement. Initial tsunami messages include alert level s , preliminary information about the earthquake, and an evaluation of the threat. If a tsunami is already suspected, the message may also include wave arrival times, recommended life safety actions, and potential impacts.
Subsequent messages, both updates and cancellations, are based on additional seismic analysis and results from the tsunami forecast models and may feature more refined, detailed, and targeted information. A tsunami warning is issued when a tsunami with the potential to generate widespread inundation is imminent, expected, or occurring.
Warnings alert the public that dangerous coastal flooding accompanied by powerful currents is possible and may continue for several hours after initial arrival. Warnings alert emergency management officials to take action for the entire tsunami hazard zone. Appropriate actions to be taken by local officials may include the evacuation of low-lying coastal areas and the repositioning of ships to deep waters when there is time to safely do so.
Warnings may be updated, adjusted geographically, downgraded, or canceled based on updated information and analysis. A tsunami advisory is issued when a tsunami with the potential to generate strong currents or waves dangerous to those in or very near the water is imminent, expected, or occurring. The threat may continue for several hours after initial arrival, but significant inundation is not expected for areas under an advisory. Appropriate actions to be taken by local officials may include closing beaches, evacuating harbors and marinas, and the repositioning of ships to deep waters when there is time to safely do so.
Advisories may be updated, adjusted geographically, upgraded to a warning, or canceled based on updated information and analysis. A tsunami watch is issued when a tsunami may later impact the watch area. The watch may be upgraded to a warning or advisory or canceled based on updated information and analysis.
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Emergency management officials and the public should prepare to take action. A tsunami information statement is issued when an earthquake or tsunami has occurred of interest to the message recipients. In most cases, information statements are issued to indicate there is no threat of a destructive basin-wide tsunami and to prevent unnecessary evacuations.
Information statements for distant events requiring evaluation may be upgraded to a warning, advisory, or watch based on updated information and analysis. A tsunami threat message is a tsunami message for international partners in the Pacific and Caribbean. The United States does not issue alerts for these partners. The primary purpose of these messages is to help national authorities understand the threat to their coasts so they can determine which alerts to issue for their coastlines, if any.
A threat message describes tsunami threats according to the potential hazard and impact to people, structures, and ecosystems on land or in nearshore marine environments. National authorities will determine the appropriate level of alert for each country and may issue additional or more refined information and instructions. A threat message may be updated based on new information, data, and analysis. An information statement may be issued following an earthquake or tsunami of interest to the message recipients if there is little to no threat, but may be upgraded to a tsunami threat message if warranted.
The Tsunami Warning Centers prepare and issue tsunami messages for their respective designated service areas. Coast Guard, the U. Each of these recipients is responsible for forwarding the message to its own constituents. The Tsunami Warning Centers issue a cancellation after they determine that a destructive tsunami will not affect an area under a warning, advisory, or watch or that a tsunami has diminished to a level where additional damage is not expected.
However, the cancellation of a message does not mean the area is safe.
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The final decision that an area is safe is up to local and state emergency management officials. Pacific and Caribbean territories, and the British Virgin Islands and is the primary international forecast center for the warning systems of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization in the Pacific and the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.
The Tsunami Warning Centers base their initial tsunami messages on the preliminary earthquake information location, depth, and magnitude received from seismic networks since that is all the information available within the first few minutes after an earthquake.